Rising damp is the natural upward movement of water inside porous masonry.
A Standalone Phenomenon
Rising damp is a STANDALONE phenomenon that can occur on its own on both internal or external walls, even in well-maintained buildings, independent of any other dampness problems or building defects.
Rising damp is NOT CAUSED by various building defects or lack of proper maintenance (such as a bridged damp proof course, the use of cement plasters, non-breathable materials, improper pointing, higher ground levels, lack of heating etc.) – although such problems, by creating their own set of dampness issues, interfere with the dynamics of rising damp, often “amplifying” its symptoms, making it worse or bringing it into view.
Fixing any of these defects, if they exist, will improve the building; but rising damp - if unaddressed on its own - stays there and will create problems (years) later.
A very important but often less known or neglected aspect of rising damp are ground salts. The rising water flow draws up diluted salts from the ground, depositing them into the building fabric. Following the evaporation of water, salts crystallize, expanding 5-10 times in volume. The exerted mechanical expansion pressure (crystallization pressure) leads to the cracking, crumbling and flaking of the plaster and wall fabric – a combination of symptoms commonly known as rising damp.
Here are some examples of rising damp from old buildings, many of them perfectly well maintained with no other problems.
Crystallizing salts are the primary cause behind crumbling and the gradual, slow decay of masonry. Because over decades or centuries salts become a permanent part of the building fabric, their presence must be known and “managed” by using appropriate renovation materials.
Rising Damp is Always Accompanied by Electrical Effects
It is less known, that EVERY TIME a masonry is subject to moisture, electrical phenomena also appear in it (e.g. voltage, current etc. variations).
We tested this extensively and we have found that dampness in masonry is ALWAYS accompanied by electrical effects - the two being inseparable.
There are no electrical effects in a completely dry masonry as dry bricks and stones are insulators.
These electrical effects occur because the buildings are built onto the ground, in direct contact with the soil, becoming part of Earth's natural electrical ecosystem, known as Earth's Global Electric Circuit.
Our planet receives most of its energy from the Sun. This energy cascades down into the atmosphere, the surface of the ground (in form of discharge currents, lightning flashes, precipitation etc.) as well as underground, where it forms Earth currents or telluric currents - electronic currents that move under or near the surface, carrying significant electrical charges through the soil.
What Causes Rising Damp?
These telluric currents have been found to be particularly intense above underground water streams - such as water table variations, underground rivers and lakes etc. - also being affected by the tidal movement of seas and oceans, geological fault lines (areas where different soil layers came into contact as a result of soil movement, landslides or tectonic activity), or zones containing piezoelectric minerals (minerals that generate electrical charge when subject to pressure) such as quartz.
Water flowing through sand, gravel and different soil layers containing mineral salts that possess an electrochemical charge, generates measurable electrical currents on the surface of the ground. Even slow water seepage - water currents travelling at very low speeds of just a few meters per hour (e.g. water table variations during and after rain) - can generate on the surface measurable electrical voltages and currents, known as spontaneous potentials.
Larger, faster water streams are accompanied by more significant electrical and magnetic effects, including:
- Magnetic field anomalies: underground water streams, sometimes situated at considerable depth (50 - 100 miles) under the surface, can scatter or focus Earth's magnetic field lines, creating strong magnetic filed areas on the surface.
- Intense electromagnetic activity in the low frequency (LF), very-high (VHF), ultra-high (UHF) and microwave (C-band) frequency bands, between 30 MHz – 3 GHz.
- Large electrical charges on the ground, in the air and in the walls of buildings.
When such areas of "magnetic disturbance" cross over buildings, they induce electrical charges in the soil and walls, charging up the base of the walls, creating an electrical potential difference between the base and upper parts of the wall, measurable with a multimeter. This potential difference creates a vertical electrical field and an electromotive force responsible for the upward "pumping" osmotic effect, which over time materializes in rising damp.
These findings open the door to new technological remedies. Cancelling out or reversing these fields in the immediate vicinity of the building results in the reduction / nullification of the electromotive force and osmotic pumping effect, leading to the cancellation of rising damp in the building.
The magnetic DPC technology does exactly that.
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